Commit 09981888 authored by Dominik Gruntz's avatar Dominik Gruntz
Browse files

08_Prototype2

parent e31799ea
plugins {
id 'java'
}
repositories {
mavenCentral()
}
sourceCompatibility = 11
targetCompatibility = 11
compileJava.options.encoding = 'UTF-8'
compileTestJava.options.encoding = 'UTF-8'
dependencies {
implementation 'io.github.kostaskougios:cloning:1.10.3'
testImplementation 'org.junit.jupiter:junit-jupiter:5.8.0'
}
test {
useJUnitPlatform()
}
distributionBase=GRADLE_USER_HOME
distributionPath=wrapper/dists
distributionUrl=https\://services.gradle.org/distributions/gradle-7.2-bin.zip
zipStoreBase=GRADLE_USER_HOME
zipStorePath=wrapper/dists
#!/bin/sh
#
# Copyright © 2015-2021 the original authors.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
# https://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
#
##############################################################################
#
# Gradle start up script for POSIX generated by Gradle.
#
# Important for running:
#
# (1) You need a POSIX-compliant shell to run this script. If your /bin/sh is
# noncompliant, but you have some other compliant shell such as ksh or
# bash, then to run this script, type that shell name before the whole
# command line, like:
#
# ksh Gradle
#
# Busybox and similar reduced shells will NOT work, because this script
# requires all of these POSIX shell features:
# * functions;
# * expansions «$var», «${var}», «${var:-default}», «${var+SET}»,
# «${var#prefix}», «${var%suffix}», and «$( cmd )»;
# * compound commands having a testable exit status, especially «case»;
# * various built-in commands including «command», «set», and «ulimit».
#
# Important for patching:
#
# (2) This script targets any POSIX shell, so it avoids extensions provided
# by Bash, Ksh, etc; in particular arrays are avoided.
#
# The "traditional" practice of packing multiple parameters into a
# space-separated string is a well documented source of bugs and security
# problems, so this is (mostly) avoided, by progressively accumulating
# options in "$@", and eventually passing that to Java.
#
# Where the inherited environment variables (DEFAULT_JVM_OPTS, JAVA_OPTS,
# and GRADLE_OPTS) rely on word-splitting, this is performed explicitly;
# see the in-line comments for details.
#
# There are tweaks for specific operating systems such as AIX, CygWin,
# Darwin, MinGW, and NonStop.
#
# (3) This script is generated from the Groovy template
# https://github.com/gradle/gradle/blob/master/subprojects/plugins/src/main/resources/org/gradle/api/internal/plugins/unixStartScript.txt
# within the Gradle project.
#
# You can find Gradle at https://github.com/gradle/gradle/.
#
##############################################################################
# Attempt to set APP_HOME
# Resolve links: $0 may be a link
app_path=$0
# Need this for daisy-chained symlinks.
while
APP_HOME=${app_path%"${app_path##*/}"} # leaves a trailing /; empty if no leading path
[ -h "$app_path" ]
do
ls=$( ls -ld "$app_path" )
link=${ls#*' -> '}
case $link in #(
/*) app_path=$link ;; #(
*) app_path=$APP_HOME$link ;;
esac
done
APP_HOME=$( cd "${APP_HOME:-./}" && pwd -P ) || exit
APP_NAME="Gradle"
APP_BASE_NAME=${0##*/}
# Add default JVM options here. You can also use JAVA_OPTS and GRADLE_OPTS to pass JVM options to this script.
DEFAULT_JVM_OPTS='"-Xmx64m" "-Xms64m"'
# Use the maximum available, or set MAX_FD != -1 to use that value.
MAX_FD=maximum
warn () {
echo "$*"
} >&2
die () {
echo
echo "$*"
echo
exit 1
} >&2
# OS specific support (must be 'true' or 'false').
cygwin=false
msys=false
darwin=false
nonstop=false
case "$( uname )" in #(
CYGWIN* ) cygwin=true ;; #(
Darwin* ) darwin=true ;; #(
MSYS* | MINGW* ) msys=true ;; #(
NONSTOP* ) nonstop=true ;;
esac
CLASSPATH=$APP_HOME/gradle/wrapper/gradle-wrapper.jar
# Determine the Java command to use to start the JVM.
if [ -n "$JAVA_HOME" ] ; then
if [ -x "$JAVA_HOME/jre/sh/java" ] ; then
# IBM's JDK on AIX uses strange locations for the executables
JAVACMD=$JAVA_HOME/jre/sh/java
else
JAVACMD=$JAVA_HOME/bin/java
fi
if [ ! -x "$JAVACMD" ] ; then
die "ERROR: JAVA_HOME is set to an invalid directory: $JAVA_HOME
Please set the JAVA_HOME variable in your environment to match the
location of your Java installation."
fi
else
JAVACMD=java
which java >/dev/null 2>&1 || die "ERROR: JAVA_HOME is not set and no 'java' command could be found in your PATH.
Please set the JAVA_HOME variable in your environment to match the
location of your Java installation."
fi
# Increase the maximum file descriptors if we can.
if ! "$cygwin" && ! "$darwin" && ! "$nonstop" ; then
case $MAX_FD in #(
max*)
MAX_FD=$( ulimit -H -n ) ||
warn "Could not query maximum file descriptor limit"
esac
case $MAX_FD in #(
'' | soft) :;; #(
*)
ulimit -n "$MAX_FD" ||
warn "Could not set maximum file descriptor limit to $MAX_FD"
esac
fi
# Collect all arguments for the java command, stacking in reverse order:
# * args from the command line
# * the main class name
# * -classpath
# * -D...appname settings
# * --module-path (only if needed)
# * DEFAULT_JVM_OPTS, JAVA_OPTS, and GRADLE_OPTS environment variables.
# For Cygwin or MSYS, switch paths to Windows format before running java
if "$cygwin" || "$msys" ; then
APP_HOME=$( cygpath --path --mixed "$APP_HOME" )
CLASSPATH=$( cygpath --path --mixed "$CLASSPATH" )
JAVACMD=$( cygpath --unix "$JAVACMD" )
# Now convert the arguments - kludge to limit ourselves to /bin/sh
for arg do
if
case $arg in #(
-*) false ;; # don't mess with options #(
/?*) t=${arg#/} t=/${t%%/*} # looks like a POSIX filepath
[ -e "$t" ] ;; #(
*) false ;;
esac
then
arg=$( cygpath --path --ignore --mixed "$arg" )
fi
# Roll the args list around exactly as many times as the number of
# args, so each arg winds up back in the position where it started, but
# possibly modified.
#
# NB: a `for` loop captures its iteration list before it begins, so
# changing the positional parameters here affects neither the number of
# iterations, nor the values presented in `arg`.
shift # remove old arg
set -- "$@" "$arg" # push replacement arg
done
fi
# Collect all arguments for the java command;
# * $DEFAULT_JVM_OPTS, $JAVA_OPTS, and $GRADLE_OPTS can contain fragments of
# shell script including quotes and variable substitutions, so put them in
# double quotes to make sure that they get re-expanded; and
# * put everything else in single quotes, so that it's not re-expanded.
set -- \
"-Dorg.gradle.appname=$APP_BASE_NAME" \
-classpath "$CLASSPATH" \
org.gradle.wrapper.GradleWrapperMain \
"$@"
# Use "xargs" to parse quoted args.
#
# With -n1 it outputs one arg per line, with the quotes and backslashes removed.
#
# In Bash we could simply go:
#
# readarray ARGS < <( xargs -n1 <<<"$var" ) &&
# set -- "${ARGS[@]}" "$@"
#
# but POSIX shell has neither arrays nor command substitution, so instead we
# post-process each arg (as a line of input to sed) to backslash-escape any
# character that might be a shell metacharacter, then use eval to reverse
# that process (while maintaining the separation between arguments), and wrap
# the whole thing up as a single "set" statement.
#
# This will of course break if any of these variables contains a newline or
# an unmatched quote.
#
eval "set -- $(
printf '%s\n' "$DEFAULT_JVM_OPTS $JAVA_OPTS $GRADLE_OPTS" |
xargs -n1 |
sed ' s~[^-[:alnum:]+,./:=@_]~\\&~g; ' |
tr '\n' ' '
)" '"$@"'
exec "$JAVACMD" "$@"
@rem
@rem Copyright 2015 the original author or authors.
@rem
@rem Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
@rem you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
@rem You may obtain a copy of the License at
@rem
@rem https://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
@rem
@rem Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
@rem distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
@rem WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
@rem See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
@rem limitations under the License.
@rem
@if "%DEBUG%" == "" @echo off
@rem ##########################################################################
@rem
@rem Gradle startup script for Windows
@rem
@rem ##########################################################################
@rem Set local scope for the variables with windows NT shell
if "%OS%"=="Windows_NT" setlocal
set DIRNAME=%~dp0
if "%DIRNAME%" == "" set DIRNAME=.
set APP_BASE_NAME=%~n0
set APP_HOME=%DIRNAME%
@rem Resolve any "." and ".." in APP_HOME to make it shorter.
for %%i in ("%APP_HOME%") do set APP_HOME=%%~fi
@rem Add default JVM options here. You can also use JAVA_OPTS and GRADLE_OPTS to pass JVM options to this script.
set DEFAULT_JVM_OPTS="-Xmx64m" "-Xms64m"
@rem Find java.exe
if defined JAVA_HOME goto findJavaFromJavaHome
set JAVA_EXE=java.exe
%JAVA_EXE% -version >NUL 2>&1
if "%ERRORLEVEL%" == "0" goto execute
echo.
echo ERROR: JAVA_HOME is not set and no 'java' command could be found in your PATH.
echo.
echo Please set the JAVA_HOME variable in your environment to match the
echo location of your Java installation.
goto fail
:findJavaFromJavaHome
set JAVA_HOME=%JAVA_HOME:"=%
set JAVA_EXE=%JAVA_HOME%/bin/java.exe
if exist "%JAVA_EXE%" goto execute
echo.
echo ERROR: JAVA_HOME is set to an invalid directory: %JAVA_HOME%
echo.
echo Please set the JAVA_HOME variable in your environment to match the
echo location of your Java installation.
goto fail
:execute
@rem Setup the command line
set CLASSPATH=%APP_HOME%\gradle\wrapper\gradle-wrapper.jar
@rem Execute Gradle
"%JAVA_EXE%" %DEFAULT_JVM_OPTS% %JAVA_OPTS% %GRADLE_OPTS% "-Dorg.gradle.appname=%APP_BASE_NAME%" -classpath "%CLASSPATH%" org.gradle.wrapper.GradleWrapperMain %*
:end
@rem End local scope for the variables with windows NT shell
if "%ERRORLEVEL%"=="0" goto mainEnd
:fail
rem Set variable GRADLE_EXIT_CONSOLE if you need the _script_ return code instead of
rem the _cmd.exe /c_ return code!
if not "" == "%GRADLE_EXIT_CONSOLE%" exit 1
exit /b 1
:mainEnd
if "%OS%"=="Windows_NT" endlocal
:omega
package patterns.clone.alias;
// This program demonstrates, that the Java-Cloning mechanism does not work
// for cyclic structures.
public class TestCycle {
static class Node implements Cloneable {
private Node next;
private int val;
public Node(int val, Node next) {
this.val = val;
this.next = next;
}
@Override
public Node clone() {
try {
Node c = (Node) super.clone();
if (c.next != null) {
c.next = c.next.clone();
}
return c;
} catch (CloneNotSupportedException e) {
throw new InternalError();
}
}
public Node getNext() { return next; }
public int getVal() { return val; }
}
public static void main(String[] args) {
Node n1 = new Node(1, null);
Node n2 = new Node(2, n1);
Node n3 = new Node(3, n2);
n1.next = n3;
// n3 -> n2 -> n1 -> n3 -> ....
Node c = n1.clone();
System.out.println(c);
System.out.println(c.next);
System.out.println(c.next.next);
System.out.println(c.next.next.next);
System.out.println(c == c.next.next.next);
}
}
package patterns.clone.alias;
// This program demonstrates, that the Java-Cloning mechanism does not work
// for diamond structures, i.e. for alias references.
public class TestDiamond {
static class Node implements Cloneable {
private Node left, right;
private int val;
public Node(int val, Node left, Node right) {
this.val = val;
this.left = left;
this.right = right;
}
@Override
public Node clone() {
try {
Node c = (Node) super.clone();
if (c.left != null) c.left = c.left.clone();
if (c.right != null) c.right = c.right.clone();
return c;
} catch (CloneNotSupportedException e) {
throw new InternalError();
}
}
public Node getLeft() { return left; }
public Node getRight() { return right; }
public int getVal() { return val; }
}
public static void main(String[] args) {
Node n4 = new Node(4, null, null);
Node n2 = new Node(2, null, n4);
Node n3 = new Node(3, n4, null);
Node n1 = new Node(1, n2, n3);
System.out.println(n1.getLeft().getRight());
System.out.println(n1.getRight().getLeft());
System.out.println(n1.getLeft().getRight() == n1.getRight().getLeft());
Node c = n1.clone();
System.out.println(c.getLeft().getRight());
System.out.println(c.getRight().getLeft());
System.out.println(c.getLeft().getRight() == c.getRight().getLeft());
}
}
package patterns.clone.comparison;
public class CompareCopyStrategies {
private static final int SIZE = 10_000;
private static final int NOFCLONES = 1_000;
public static void main(String[] args) {
@SuppressWarnings("unused")
double referenceTime = measure(new Dictionary("german", SIZE));
}
private static double measure(Dictionary dict) {
long start = System.currentTimeMillis();
for (int i = 0; i < NOFCLONES; i++) {
dict.clone();
}
long end = System.currentTimeMillis();
double t = (end - start) / 1000.0;
System.out.println("Time used: " + t);
return t;
}
}
package patterns.clone.comparison;
@SuppressWarnings("unused")
public class Dictionary implements Cloneable {
private String language;
private final int size;
private String[] words;
public Dictionary(String language, int size) {
this.language = language;
this.size = size;
this.words = new String[size];
for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)
this.words[i] = "sample word " + i;
}
@Override
public Dictionary clone() {
try {
Dictionary d = (Dictionary) super.clone();
if (words != null) {
d.words = words.clone();
}
return d;
} catch (CloneNotSupportedException e) {
throw new InternalError();
}
}
}
package patterns.clone.comparison.util;
import java.lang.reflect.Array;
import java.lang.reflect.Constructor;
import java.lang.reflect.Field;
import java.lang.reflect.Modifier;
import java.util.IdentityHashMap;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.HashSet;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.Set;
// ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
/**
* This non-instantiable non-extendible class provides a static clone() method
* suitable for cloning an instance of a class satisfying the following
* constraints:
* <UL>
* <LI>no-arg constructor is available (not necessarily public)
* <LI>neither the class nor any of its superclasses have any final fields
* <LI>neither the class nor any of its superclasses have any inner classes
* </UL>
*
* This class requires sufficient security privileges to work. This
* implementation is not industrial strength and is provided for demo purposes.
* <P>
*
* MT-safety: this class is safe for use from mutliple concurrent threads.
*
* @author (C) <a href="mailto:vroubtsov@illinoisalumni.org">Vlad Roubtsov</a>,
* 2002
*/
public abstract class ReflectiveClone {
/**
* Makes a reflection-based deep clone of 'obj'.
*
* @param obj
* input object to clone [null will cause a NullPointerException]
* @return obj's deep clone [never null; can be == to 'obj']
*
* @throws RuntimeException
* on any failure
*/
public static Object clone(final Object obj) {
return clone(obj, new IdentityHashMap<Object, Object>(),
new HashMap<Class<?>, ClassMetadata>());
}
private ReflectiveClone() {
} // prevent subclassing
/*
* Internal class used to cache class metadata information.
*/
private static final class ClassMetadata {
Constructor<?> m_noargConstructor; // cached no-arg constructor
Field[] m_declaredFields; // cached declared fields
boolean m_noargConstructorAccessible;
boolean m_fieldsAccessible;
} // end of nested class
/**
* The workhorse behind clone(Object). This method is mutually recursive
* with {@link #setFields(Object, Object, Field[], boolean, Map, Map)}.
*
* @param obj
* current source object being cloned
* @param objMap
* maps a source object to its clone in the current traversal
* @param metadataMap
* maps a Class object to its ClassMetadata.
*/
private static Object clone(final Object obj,
final Map<Object, Object> objMap,
final Map<Class<?>, ClassMetadata> metadataMap) {
if (DEBUG)
System.out.println("traversing src obj [" + obj + "]");
// return 'obj' clone if it has been instantiated already:
if (objMap.containsKey(obj))
return objMap.get(obj);
final Class<?> objClass = obj.getClass();
final Object result;
if (objClass.isArray()) {
final int arrayLength = Array.getLength(obj);
if (arrayLength == 0) // empty arrays are immutable
{
objMap.put(obj, obj);